Certainly there are large privately owned firms IKEA, Zara to name two that operate global supply chains, and large state owned corporations in some extractive sectors, but for the sake of simplicity I assume that while these varying ownership structures might have some impact on the political economy of the specific company, the governance issues and power relations within the supply chain networks are likely to be relatively similar.
Burnham used his analysis of the rise of managerialism to make a number of highly inaccurate political forecasts, but even his critics recognise he presented an early account of an important social dynamic. For accounts of his wider work see Nichols : 31—39 and Orwell . See for instance the analysis of the UK supply chain for fresh vegetables discussed in Dolan and Humphrey For instance, contributions to Harland et al. See the case studies in Kristensen and Zeitlin This tripartite schema is drawn from Suchman The drive for control as a or even the central aspect of the analysis of corporate power, as opposed to property rights or efficiency concerns, is also a central motif of Bowman Adapted from Dekker et al.
For an extended discussion of corporate power which this paragraph quickly summarises see May : Chapter 4. Anderson GW Corporate governance and constitutional law: A legal pluralist perspective. In: McLeod S ed. Hart Publishing: Oxford. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Baudry B and Chassagnon V The vertical network as a specific governance structure. Journal of Management and Governance ; 16 2 : — Beetham D The Legitimation of Power. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke.
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Subjects Business and management Politics and international relations. Introduction In this article I am not going to discuss how various corporations have shaped the agenda of particular institutions of global governance, nor am I going to set out the impact that globally focussed regulatory institutions have on particular business sectors or corporations. A permissive albeit brief definition of global governance The first step is to establish a definition of global governance that is both acceptable and permissive of inclusion of corporations.
This leads Weiss to offer the following definition: global governance is collective efforts to identify, understand or address worldwide problems that go beyond the capacities of individual states to solve … the capacity within the international system at any moment to provide government-like services and public goods in absence of a world government. Here, the corporation actively seeks to structure its environment to serve its needs of autonomy and discretion. In particular, several factors can inluence the diffusion process, such as the characteristics.
The four which are described most frequently are material incentives and sanctions embargoes, inancial aid, market access, or military intervention , social incentives and sanctions positive image, a sense of belonging, shaming, or exclusion , persuasion a change in beliefs or attitudes in the absence of coercion , and imitation unconscious copying in order to navigate through an uncertain environment : m Factors Inluencing Diffusion:.
Characteristics of Norm Entrepreneurs shg 2. Characteristics of Norm Recipients w. The Relationship Between Them ww 4. Qualities of Norms 5. The instrument used most frequently is social sanctioning less often social incentives. Because NGOs are perceived as independent and above politics — unlike States and international organisations — they are often successful in shaming norm violators. For example, the achievements of Amnesty International can be attributed to its conscious efforts to remain politically impartial.
Finally, CSOs can use persuasion. Since an insulated setting is propitious for persuasion, the International Committee of the Red Cross ICRC m promotes norms through private, conidential exchanges with governments. Within this context of a new political agency, an unprecedented global public domain consolidates in which old state-centred visions of international affairs mix with new non-state-centred visions of global politics, producing a complex map of ideological positions.
Citizens’ Reappropriation of Politics
Table While the issues that motivate mobilisation can be ultimately w. While success necessarily depends on international circumstances, national conditions often play an important role in the rise of global social movements. While democratic countries tend to leave w. For this very reason, the development of civil societies across the globe is not only uneven, but also multifaceted and diverse; thus, the modus operandi of this development may not easily be replicated across the national, regional, and cultural boundaries.
While this aspect also accounts for the quality and quantity of the results ww which were yielded by transnational activism for example not all constituencies have been affected in the same way , the uneven participation damages the credibility of such activism as a genuinely global movement that is able to champion the real needs of all the communities in the world in an inclusive way.
Following this recognition, some would even argue that when we discuss civil m. When this relativistic and critical stance is adopted, some usually advance a tolerant attitude of listening as the most favourable m way of facilitating cultural and political encounters on a genuinely egalitarian basis. While it is clear that civil society organisations cannot aim at m. Civil society organisations usually claim to advance the public interest.
While it is not clear what the public interest is with regard to many specific global issues, m. Following a broad liberal paradigm, international organisations, nation-states, and a wider society tend to assume that an increased participation of civil society and its stakeholder actors in global governance helps increase its legitimacy at large. Here a distinction should be made between two types of civil society organisations shg that have a very different attitude towards political institutions.
For these reasons, these two kinds of civil society organisations do not shg w. From radical antagonism ww to radical nationalism notwithstanding the criminal groups , those who stood in opposition to institutional politics have often been criminalised and marginalised from the political system. While we are still far from constituting a decisive move towards a comprehensive democratisation of world politics, these incremental steps should not be underestimated.
International and Regional Organisations
Having said that, we need to acknowledge along with scholte that, in the absolute terms, the impact has been modest and uneven scholte Why is civil society more effective in some issues than in others? Which contextual preconditions created a conducive environment for the growth of m. What is the role played by civil society actors in the politics of norm change? The Quest for Security makes for a fascinating read, made all the more timely by the current outcry—across the country and beyond—over the unequal distribution of the pains and gains from the economic changes of recent years.
The book examines globalization as the multidimensional phenomenon that it is, without complexifying it to the point where the key issues become obscured. It is an important book that offers both an introduction to key issues in global governance to a general audience and advances the debate among expert scholars and policymakers with serious, constructive proposals for making economic globalization politically sustainable by improving average citizens' economic, physical, and environmental security.
Tim Buthe, Duke University This book takes the many and varied challenges facing the world, from the financial crisis to global warming, and explores how new forms of governance and cooperation can be developed to solve some of them or at least mitigate their effects.
This book is original and pathbreaking, and its contributors are at the forefront of thinking about these questions. Andrew Gamble, Cambridge University Our interdependent but uncoordinated world, in which we are often at loggerheads with each other, generates many different problems. In an insightful collection of contributions led by Mary Kaldor and Joseph E. Stiglitz, this wonderful book offers constructive ways of avoiding disaster with the help of global cooperation.
Who’s in charge? Corporations as institutions of global governance
A great book for our time. Lamont University Professor and Professor of Economics and Philosophy, Harvard University At a time when most initiatives to reinvigorate the multilateral system and its provision of global public goods are failing, it is encouraging to read the analyses and proposals contained in this volume. The key message of this excellent collection is reassuring: that the governance predicaments posed by globalization are solvable after all; the intellectual battle is not lost and it is still possible, with workable propositions, to win the political one in order to build a better international system.
With strong conviction, I buy the argument. Ernesto Zedillo, director of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization and former president of Mexico This important book offers new thinking for exceptional times.