This volume contains contemporary research concerning IS evolution in organizations, including not only hardware, software, data, information and networks, but also people. Integration of these key components is paramount to the success of organizations today. Read more Read less.
Save Extra with 4 offers. About the Author. To get the free app, enter mobile phone number. See all free Kindle reading apps. Tell the Publisher! By providing techniques to quickly construct, evaluate, and change partial solutions, prototyping has become a fulcrum for system development. The software crisis intensified interest in programming as a human activity.
It heightened the need for more programmers, for better-trained programmers, for more productive programmers. The development of time sharing and interactive computing allowed new styles of programming and made the dynamics of individual programmer activity more salient. Programming became recognized as an area of psychology involving problem solving and symbol manipulation Weinberg Through the s, a behavioral approach to understanding software design, programming, and the use of interactive systems developed rapidly.
This work addressed a wide assortment of questions about what people experience and how they perform when they interact with computers. By the end of that decade, a software psychology research community had formed Shneiderman This work inspired many industrial human factors groups to expand the scope of their responsibilities toward support for programming groups and the usability of software. During the latter s, several extensive compilations of research-based guidelines appeared, and most computer manufacturers there were no exclusively-software companies at that time established usability laboratories, whose scope of responsibility steadily expanded.
Before the s, the notion of "user interface" was completely unarticulated. The focus of computing was literally on computations, not on intelligibly presenting the results of computations. This is why the early visions of personal, desktop access to massive information stores Bush , graphical and gestural user interfaces Sutherland , and synchronous collaboration through direct pointing and shared windows Engelbart and English are historically so significant.
Through the s, advances in workstation computers and bit-mapped displays allowed these early visions to be consolidated. It is striking that the essential concepts of desktop computing that guided the next 20 years of research and development emerged during this early period. During the latter s, cognitive science had coalesced as a multidisciplinary project encompassing linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, psychology, and computer science.
One principle of cognitive science was that an effective multidisciplinary science should be capable of supporting application to real problems and to benefit from it. Many domains were investigated, including mechanics, radiology, and algebra. HCI became one the original cognitive science domains. The initial vision of HCI as applied science was to bring cognitive science methods and theories to bear on software development.
Most ambitiously, it was hoped that cognitive science theory could provide substantive guidance at very early stages of the software development process. This guidance would come from general principles of perception and motor activity, problem-solving and language, communication and group behavior, and so on. It would also include developing a domain theory, or theories, of HCI. This was an advance on prior human factors modeling, which did not address the cognitive structures underlying manifest behavior.
But it was also an advance on the cognitive psychology of the time: It explicitly integrated many components of skilled performance to produce predictions about real tasks. The GOMS model is important because it set a standard for scientific and theoretical rigor and innovation that became a defining characteristic of HCI. The foundations of HCI remain an active focus of research. The first group of papers in this volume shows how these foundations are continuing to expand the disciplinary scope and relevance of HCI models, theories, and frameworks to practitioners.
Initially, HCI had two foci, methods and software, and a major theme was the integration of the two in a framework called user-centered system development. The methods focus was on techniques to achieve better usability.
This entailed explicating the concept of usability with respect to learning, skilled performance, and subjective experiences, like satisfaction and fun. It involved the development and empirical validation of models and theories. It involved laboratory studies of people learning and using systems, and of techniques for evaluating systems.
Integrating Human-Computer Interaction Development into SDLC: A Methodology
And it involved working within development organizations to understand how to involve usability professionals earlier and more effectively in software development. The methods focus became known as usability engineering. The software focus of HCI was concerned with inventing and refining graphical user interface concepts and techniques to make systems more powerful, more useful, and more usable. An important consequent objective was to make new user interface concepts and techniques easier for developers to employ. This entailed the development of toolkits and software frameworks. The software focus became known as user interface software and tools.
The method and software foci often cross-leverage one another. For example, new user interface metaphors are developed from theory and from user studies, refined and implemented in prototype systems, evaluated in further user studies, and then incorporated into toolkits.
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Through the past two decades, these original focus areas have continued to expand and diversify, though their synergistic relationship remains a cornerstone of HCI. The early focus of usability engineering was evaluation: gauging the success of implemented software and systems with respect to measurable criteria.
It was patterned on the laboratory-oriented human factors paradigm in telecommunications. However, the ascendance of prototyping and iterative development in software and the ambition of engaging cognitive science as a foundation for human-computer interaction pushed the focus of evaluation work upstream in the system development process. Formative evaluation methods are often qualitative; a typical method involves having people "think aloud" as they perform a task.
Theory-based models and tools took an even more ambitious position, seeking to enable analytic evaluations of designs before they were implemented even as prototypes. The objective of providing guidance earlier in the system development process entrained fundamental changes in usability engineering. An example is the recognition that the earliest point for impact is requirements analysis.
The sociologists and anthropologists who had come to HCI through its connection to cognitive science showed through field studies of work practices that people do their work and use their tools in surprisingly creative ways Suchman But their work practices are often not easy to anticipate without direct study or direct user participation in the development process. A second example is the growing focus on design methods: Usability can be designed as well as evaluated, but a design-time usability process entails coordination with graphical and interaction designers that is still just beginning.
Complementary to moving usability work further upstream in design and development is a focus in usability engineering on cost-benefit tradeoffs in methods Bias and Mayhew The most evident manifestation of this theme has been widespread effort at developing "low-cost" inspection and walkthrough methods. But cost-benefit is a complex issue. Different methods have different goals, producing different types of benefits. Some continuing questions for usability engineering are how methods can leverage foundations in science and theory; how methods can be evaluated; and how different types of methods, like laboratory studies, field studies, walkthroughs, and analytic models, can be integrated with one another and with other methods and processes of system development.
The second group of papers in this volume shows how usability engineering is developing. It is addressing an ever-greater variety of types of systems and usability phenomena, such as worker adaptation. User interface software and tools is concerned with user interface concepts and metaphors, display and interaction techniques, and software development methods. This is surely the most visibly successful area of HCI. A continuing research thread in this area is architectures for user interface software.
An early objective was separation of the user interface and application functionality into distinct layers. This approach modularized the user interface in user interface management systems, encouraging iterative redesign for example, Tanner and Buxton However, layering entrained limitations on the granularity of user interface interactions.
It also proved to be an obstacle to incremental development methods, because it presupposed top-down decomposition with respect to what was user interface and what was application functionality. A key goal in this area has always been to ease the development of interactive systems. Through time, this goal has become more challenging because the skills of application developers have become more diverse.
Institutionalizing human-computer interaction for global health
For example, this motivated a family of prototyping tools based on the premise that user interface software could be directly created "by demonstration. The third group of papers summarizes the progress to date in user interface software and tools and identifies some of the key challenges for the future. The key questions for user interface software and tools are what models and techniques will be most appropriate for creating interfaces with controls and displays quite different from those of the graphical user interface paradigm of the past 20 years.
This is, however, not without problems. Digital technologies have many positive aspects but also one needs to be aware of and plan to overcome the challenges related to security, privacy and integrity. We need to closely monitor and adapt liability issues when conducting care online through digital tools. And we also need to investigate usability and accessibility issues to manage a healthy development. The Stockholm Declaration for Global Health [ 13 ] declared in the goal of promoting social justice globally and of safeguarding the wellbeing of current and future generations.
The Stockholm Declaration for Global Health urges governments, the global health community, schools and universities, development agencies, donors, policy-makers, research funding agencies, the business sector and civil society to act urgently on existing evidence in the following areas:. Linking on-going agendas with new agendas.
Ensure that the post development agenda builds on current MDGs, is universal and incorporates emerging challenges. These include socioeconomic and gender inequalities, non-communicable diseases such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory disease and climate change including threats to food and water security.
Creating stronger leadership and accountability so that health is at the centre of development. Ensure that health is a high-profile unifying theme in the post development agenda, positioned to act as a catalyst for human rights and global solidarity, and that appropriate accountability mechanisms and professional leadership for global and national commitments are established. Building capacity and investing in health.
Invest in leadership for global health through education from primary school to university, and enable public empwerment by bringing together networks for intersectoral multidisciplinary research and action on global health.
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Exploiting opportunities and synergies. Identify and exploit opportunities for applying effective democratic principles to ongoing health agendas including maternal, child and mental health , violence, climate change and other emerging challenges, thus bringing sustainable social, ecological and economic short-term and long-term returns for both public and private sectors.
Pursue synergies such as health and climate co-benefits that bring multiple gains. But, as mentioned before, digitalization is the biggest societal transformation process that every sector of society currently undergoes. This is also very much the case for the health-care sector. Digitalization makes it possible to do things in new ways, and it makes it possible to do new things. To understand a complex societal process of change, such as understanding the effects of a software development project in context, involving many people, both online and offline, requires a qualitative research approach.
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There are few measurable qualities that could be perceived as important to judge the development and progress. Additionally, we aim to conduct the research with the explicit objective of improving the society and thus we are not independent observers of a process, but, as researchers, active participants in a process of societal change. In action research, we use qualitative data-gathering methods, such as interviews, observations, workshops etc. Since the research is about contributing to change we apply design methods as a tool for the research [ 16 ].
There are many areas in which digital technologies may have the potential to improve health care. In the following we mention a few of the results that we think have a bearing on the digitalization of health care for developing countries:. Digital technologies for preventive health care — Digital technologies may prove to be very useful for spreading information and knowledge for preventive health care: for example, using technologies for health campaigns to promote preventive health care [ 17 ].
Digital technologies can help people who suspect they have some form of disease to get more information about their symptoms and condition through online dictionaries and knowledge databases. They can also get information from social networks dedicated to patients who have gone through similar situations and how they have dealt with such types of situations. Digital technologies to make administration more effective — Digital tools may help planning health consultations and schedule visits better for increased efficiency, and can facilitate transfer between different ward units and ensure synchronization between different care-givers.
Additionally, they may provide opportunities for health-care workers to establish a more effective work situation. Studies of the implementation of a surgical planning in Sweden confirms the above-presented improvements. The ICT system for planning surgery did increase the overview, and helped the planners with more and more relevant information about the surgery. Digitalizing the medical record — Digital medical records create more solid patient information that can be accessible from many different places. Providing patients with Web-based access to their own medical records has proved to be useful and appreciated by patients.
A study with cancer patients in Sweden showed that some patients preferred to receive their diagnosis by reading about it in their medical record instead of having to wait for the information and to be able to process it emotionally before seeing their doctor in order to be able to ask questions [ 18 ]. Considering the often short time available for consultation with a doctor, accessing the medical record enables patients also to prepare themselves for an upcoming visit and can serve as a memory aid for what has been discussed during the visit [ 18 ]. Digital skills for information and communication — Digital technologies may help people to build and deepen their skills and collect information on their health condition.
At the same time, engaging with these technologies requires a skill set which has been termed eHealth literacy [ 19 ]. The lack of eHealth literacy skills bears the risk of extending the digital divide into the healthcare domain [ 20 ], which has to be addressed accordingly. A survey of patients reading their medical records online in Sweden confirms that the users of the system has a very high level of education, and that many users work in health care [ 21 ].
This indicates that the users of the system have good eHealth literacy. Digital technologies for remote asynchronous medical judgements — Digital technologies may help individuals to do self-diagnosis and provide remote asynchronous medical judgements. In rural areas, it may be possible to take pictures and communicate remotely, synchronously or asynchronously, with doctors, to get initial recommendations or advice, to help in traumatic situations when no doctors have a chance of getting in immediate touch.
One can conclude that while eHealth interventions are rare in constrained areas, mHealth is widely used for care and management [ 22 ]. Sensor technologies and remote monitoring — Sensor technologies allow remote and continuous monitoring of patients who agree to sharing their data. This has been shown to be particularly interesting in relation to the care of older patients.
Sensor technologies can show movement and location and thus help tracing patients or keeping track of their movements during the day. Research in Austria has, however, shown that the development of sensor-based systems for older people requires a thorough understanding of this diverse user group. It is challenging to successfully implement sensor-based technology despite its great potential [ 23 ]. Digital resources in trauma and disasters — Digital tools may provide help when access to medical professionals is scarce, particularly when accidents or bigger disasters happen.
Digital technologies may be very useful during rehabilitation and training to regain strength after a trauma. Handling specific traumas in intensive care is a complex task where digital technologies can, if used in the right way, mean the difference between life and death.
In a forthcoming PhD thesis Alexander Yngling, KTH , the design of mobile technologies to aid doctors and nurses of different specializations in trauma has been tested Figure 1. Digital technologies for medication — Digital technologies may help patients remind themselves about medications and provide pharmaceutical information [ 24 ].
Many people need specific assistance to be able to use the right medication. Taking a too small or too big dose of a prescription is far too common and could easily be prevented if patients have up-to-date digital tools that can help them in their daily medication. The experiences obtained can of course not be generalized to any setting, and particularly not to an African setting as the technology availability, the maturity of digital skills, the infrastructure and the culture of use is very different.
However, they all show that innovations relating to mobile health or the use of digital technologies to improve health and care all teach us important things about the process of designing and introducing these technologies.