The book also defends increased co-operation among researchers in connecting fields such as the language sciencesand the neurosciences. Additional Product Features Dewey Edition. A Wholistic View of Bilingualism3. The Bilingual's Language Modes5. Basse-Language Effect and Categorical Perception8. The Gender marking Effect in Bilinguals The subjects of the study are 12 pre-school bilingual children, aged 2 to 6, born and raised in Austria by Kurdish parents.
Multilingualism | Linguistic Society of America
The type of observation applied is tape recordings of spontaneous speech, without assigning specific topics of conversation. The tape recordings took place in different situations, such as the family home during daily interaction or in the playground. The corpus of data includes five recordings of different length, from 40 minutes to minutes.
Chapter 8 analyses Kurdish-German intrasentential CS. Data reveal that firstly, nouns, and then verbs, are the most frequently switched categories in intrasentential switches. In intra-word switches the most recurrent category is German nouns in combination with Kurdish inflectional morphemes, followed by German verb in combination with Kurdish operator.
The data of this study show the addition of Kurdish suffixes to German lexemes. This process of Kurdish morphological affixation to German can be observed in number and definitiveness inflection and in possessive pronoun suffixes. The author highlights that, in this case, the German nouns cannot be regarded as borrowed words from German into Kurdish, because these words have not been phonologically assimilated into Kurdish; rather, the German nouns have been embedded in the morphological inflection pattern of Kurdish.
Similar bilingual compound verbs have been found in the CS literature Appel and Muysken, , but what distinguishes these German-Kurdish compound verbs is the behavior of the operator as an inflectional morpheme. Chapter 10 provides analysis of functional factors on the CS data of the study. Data show that the common codes of communication within the community are Kurdish and German, with a slight dominance of Kurdish.
Despite its strengths, I would make some observations about certain weaknesses of the book. The study encompasses diverse definitions and theories about bilingualism and code-switching from a linguistic and sociolinguistic point of view, but the theoretical introduction would have been more relevant if the author had provided more recent literature references. Indeed, the book is fairly short and the addition of a more consistent account of previous research would have made it more accessible to the reader. Chapters 4 and 5 are extremely brief and rather inadequate to sustain the subsequent sociolinguist analysis of the data.
In particular, the analysis of the functional factors in Chapter 10 could have been more emphasized and, even if the author himself states that the study is not devoted to sociolinguistic aspects. Great Britain: Routledge.
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The Handbook of Bilingualism. Bloomfield, Leonard Language. New York: Henry Holt and Company. Grosjean, F. Studying Bilinguals. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gumperz, John Joseph Discourse Strategies. Electrophysiological measures are used to determine which stages of processing are affected by the experimental manipulation.
Studying Bilinguals by Francois Grosjean and François Grosjean (2008, Hardcover)
Neuroimaging provides information about changes in brain structure and function. For example, the functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI technique can be used to visualize which brain regions are engaged in processing a particular type of sentence. Although neuroimaging is a relatively-new methodology, it holds great promise for increasing our understanding of the dynamic processes in the brain related to language. During sentence processing, readers and listeners must minimally retrieve the meaning of each word in the input, group the words into syntactic constituents, and create dependencies between them to assign grammatical roles and to arrive at the intended meaning.
Our experience as listeners and readers tells us that this process is very rapid and efficient. Much research effort has gone into developing a theory of the architecture of the human sentence-processing mechanism that can explain how the parser computes the syntactic structure of sentences, and how it does so in a remarkably short period of time. Serial or two-stage accounts of processing propose that processing decisions are modular with respect to the type of information initially available to the parser.
Recently other researchers have discussed the role of resource allocation and of sufficiently unexpected events as a source of processing difficulty. Pickering and van Gompel and Traxler, et al.
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Pickering, M. Syntactic parsing. In The handbook of psycholinguistics. Edited by M. Traxler and M. Gernsbacher, — Amsterdam: Elsevier.
This chapter overviews the major issues on syntactic processing in monolingual speakers, overviewing serial or two-stage accounts of parsing and interactive accounts. It discusses frequency effects, effects of plausibility, prosody, and the research on the immediate integration of the sentence with the non-linguistic context.
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