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The bead seats tightly against the two rims on the wheel to ensure that a tubeless tire holds air without leakage. The bead fit is tight to ensure the tire does not shift circumferentially as the wheel rotates. The width of the rim in relationship to the tire is a factor in the handling characteristics of an automobile, because the rim supports the tire's profile. The sidewall is that part of the tire, or bicycle tire , that bridges between the tread and bead. The sidewall is largely rubber but reinforced with fabric or steel cords that provide for tensile strength and flexibility.

The sidewall contains air pressure and transmits the torque applied by the drive axle to the tread to create traction but supports little of the weight of the vehicle, as is clear from the total collapse of the tire when punctured. Sidewalls are molded with manufacturer-specific detail, government mandated warning labels, and other consumer information, and sometimes decorative ornamentation, like whitewalls or tire lettering.

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The shoulder is that part of the tire at the edge of the tread as it makes transition to the sidewall. Plies are layers of relatively inextensible cords embedded in the rubber [62] to hold its shape by preventing the rubber from stretching in response to the internal pressure. The orientations of the plies play a large role in the performance of the tire and is one of the main ways that tires are categorized.

The materials of modern pneumatic tires can be divided into two groups, the cords that make up the ply and the elastomer which encases them. The cords, which form the ply and bead and provide the tensile strength necessary to contain the inflation pressure, can be composed of steel , natural fibers such as cotton or silk , or synthetic fibers such as nylon or kevlar. The elastomer, which forms the tread and encases the cords to protect them from abrasion and hold them in place, is a key component of pneumatic tire design.

Optimizing rolling resistance in the elastomer material is a key challenge for reducing fuel consumption in the transportation sector. The most common elastomer material used today is a styrene - butadiene copolymer. Therefore, the ratio the two monomers in the styrene-butadiene copolymer is considered key in determining the glass transition temperature of the material, which is correlated to its grip and resistance properties. Associated components of a tires, includes the wheel on which it is mounted, the valve stem through which air is introduced, and, for some tires, an inner tube that provides the airtight means for maintaining tire pressure.

The interactions of a tire with the pavement are a complex. Many of the details are modeled in Pacejka's Magic Formula. Automotive tires have a variety of identifying markings molded onto the sidewall as a tire code. They denote size, rating, and other information pertinent to that individual tire. The DOT Code is an alphanumeric character sequence molded into the sidewall of the tire and allows the identification of the tire and its age. The code is mandated by the U. Department of Transportation [81] but is used worldwide. An upper case "E" indicates that the tire is certified to comply with the dimensional, performance and marking requirements of ECE regulation The number in the circle or rectangle denotes the country code of the government that granted the type approval.

The last number outside the circle or rectangle is the number of the type approval certificate issued for that particular tire size and type. The British Rubber Manufacturers Association BRMA recommended practice, issued June , states, "BRMA members strongly recommend that unused tyres should not be put into service if they are over six years old and that all tyres should be replaced ten years from the date of their manufacture. To maintain tire health, several actions are appropriate, tire rotation, wheel alignment, and, sometimes, retreading the tire. Inflation is key to proper wear and rolling resistance of pneumatic tires.


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Many vehicles have monitoring systems to assure proper inflation. Tire hazards may occur from failure of the tire, itself, or from loss of traction on the surface over which it is rolling. Tires may fail for any of a variety of reasons, including: [95]. Once tires are discarded, they are considered scrap tires. Scrap tires are often re-used for things from bumper car barriers to weights to hold down tarps.

Rubber tires are likely to contain some traces of heavy metals or other serious pollutants , but these are tightly bonded within the actual rubber compound they are unlikely to be hazardous unless the tire structure is seriously damaged by fire or strong chemicals. Some tires may also be retreaded for re-use. Americans generate about million scrap tires per year. In the past, millions of tires have been discarded into open fields. This creates a breeding ground for mosquitoes, since the tires often hold water inside and remain warm enough for mosquito breeding.

Mosquitoes create a nuisance and may increase the likelihood of spreading disease. It also creates a fire danger, since such a large tire pile is a lot of fuel. Some tire fires have burned for months, since water does not adequately penetrate or cool the burning tires.


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Tires have been known to liquefy, releasing hydrocarbons and other contaminants to the ground and even ground water, under extreme heat and temperatures from a fire. The black smoke from a tire fire causes air pollution and is a hazard to down wind properties. The use of scrap tire chips for landscaping has become controversial, due to the leaching of metals and other contaminants from the tire pieces.

Tires that are fully worn can be retreaded , re-manufactured to replace the worn tread. Both processes start with the inspection of the tire, followed by non-destructive inspection method such as shearography [] to locate non-visible damage and embedded debris and nails. Some casings are repaired and some are discarded. Tires can be retreaded multiple times if the casing is in usable condition.

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Tires used for short delivery vehicles are retreaded more than long haul tires over the life of the tire body. Casings fit for retreading have the old tread buffed away to prepare for retreading. During the retreading process, retread technicians must ensure the casing is in the best condition possible to minimize the possibility of a casing failure.

Casings with problems such as capped tread, tread separation, irreparable cuts, corroded belts or sidewall damage, or any run-flat or skidded tires, will be rejected. The mold cure method involves the application of raw rubber on the previously buffed and prepared casing, which is later cured in matrices.

During the curing period, vulcanization takes place and the raw rubber bonds to the casing, taking the tread shape of the matrix.

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On the other hand, the pre-cure method involves the application of a ready-made tread band on the buffed and prepared casing, which later is cured in an autoclave so that vulcanization can occur. Tires can be recycled into, among other things, the hot melt asphalt , typically as crumb rubber modifier—recycled asphalt pavement CRM—RAP , [] [] and as an aggregate in portland cement concrete. The tire pyrolysis method for recycling used tires is a technique which heats whole or shredded tires in a reactor vessel containing an oxygen-free atmosphere and a heat source.

In the reactor the rubber is softened after which the rubber polymers continuously break down into smaller molecules. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Tire disambiguation. For the swimming device, see swim ring. For the silent film, see Rubber Tires.

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Ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel's rim. Main article: Tire manufacturing. Main articles: Wheel , Bicycle wheel , and Motorcycle wheel. See also: Rubber pollution and Road wear. Main article: Tire recycling. Dry steering List of inflatable manufactured goods Outline of tires Rubber-tyred metro Rubber-tyred trams. Online Etymology Dictionary. Oxford University Press, December The Cambridge Guide to English Usage. Cambridge University Press. David Crystal ed. Oxford University Press.

Retrieved Handbook to Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. Retrieved 2 August Archive maintained by 'The Pedal Club'. Hutchinson Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Retrieved 9 July Tires: A century of progress. New York City: Popular Mechanics. City Journal. Princeton University Press. Berkshire Encyclopedia of World History.

Berkshire Publishing. DOT HS Cooper Research Technology Ltd. Retrieved 1 September Wheel and Tire Performance Handbook. Paul: MotorBooks International. Jeep 4X4 Performance Handbook. MotorBooks International. CarTech Inc. Report No.

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Department of Transportation. High-Performance Handling for Street or Track. Automotive Technology: A Systems Approach. Cengage Learning. International Trade Commission. Industrial Journalism. May Aerospace safety.


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September Tundra Tire Nation. New York: Flying Magazine. Sheldon Brown. Retrieved March 10, Conclusion: Clincher tires stay on the rim primarily by the clinch of the hooked sidewall that retains the tire bead, not the circumferential tension in the bead. May 10, Market Talk News. Information Canada. Motorcycle Dynamics Second ed.

Popular Mechanics. March Retrieved 13 March Popular Science. Michelin The tire digest. Kal Tire. Freedonia Group. Retrieved 19 May Tire Business.

Bibliographic Information

Crain Communications. Retrieved 13 December Rubber World. Robot Building for Beginners 3 ed. Frictional Interaction of Tire and Pavement. ASTM International. Michael September Springer Verlag. Bibcode : WASP Hemmings Daily. Vehicle dynamics: theory and applications. Inner layers are made of different fabrics, called plies. Study of two types of styrene butadiene rubber in tire tread compounds. Polymer Testing , 20 5 , Clark, V. Gough Mechanics of Pneumatic Tires.

Consider two mechanisms of force transmission acting in parallel. The only possible way in which the reaction can develop at the rim is by the changes in magnitude and direction of the membrane stresses at their points of attachment to the rim, in the region of the membrane near the point where the plate is pressed against it. This force pulls the bead coil against the base of the wheel rim above the contact area, thus transmitting the upward force to the wheel.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Tire Technology International. Our mechanics can pick up your car for repairs and deliver it back when the repairs are complete. Book a car repair online or call us now! To keep your car working at it's peak condition at all times, make sure to regularly visit your car service. Professional diagnostic and experienced mechanics will often direct your attention to things otherwise unnoticed, saving you costly repairs in case of breakdown. As a moving mechanical vehicle, your car has parts that wear down during normal using conditions - brakes, ball joints, wheel bearings, suspension If suspicious items are not treated in a timely manner, further expluatation can deteriorate the car part from what could have been a simple and easy fix into a costly repair several times more expensive.

Acknowledging that vocational education prepares students for further training and employment, the Australian Vocational Student Prize promotes the value of gaining vocational skills while at school. Giving national recognition to achievements in vocational training completed in secondary education, the Australian Vocational Student Prize has been awarded to Robo's Motorworks apprentice mechanic Ethan Brewster.

While still attending Year 11, Ethan joined the Rockhampton car service in as a light vehicle mechanical apprentice and has been repairing vehicles ever since.