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The micro mix so obtained should be then mixed in the large mixer with all other ingredients. Macro mixing is the actual blending of all components of the premix along with carriers in a batch mixer. The content uniformity of the premix is based on following parameters:.

Horizontal or vertical mixers can be used. It must meet safety standards and must be properly installed. The requirements of a mixer are:. A normal feed mixer is not recommended for premixes. A specialized mixer capable of mixing to a low CV Coefficient of variation is the most desired. Specialized Nauta mixers are normally capable of ensuring homogenous mixing.

Examples of mixers: ribbon mixer, conical screw mixer, mass mixer, and cylindrical plough mixer etc. It is evident that shorter mixing time leads to under mixing while prolonged mixing time results in demixing. By trial and error and also by conducting coefficient of variation studies, optimum-mixing time can be arrived for a particular mixer. If proper mixer loading sequence is not followed, oil balls, chemical interactions and particle segregation can result in a premix. Regular mixer evaluation should be accomplished by conducting coefficient of variation studies.

The mean assay value for the tracer should also be within the permissible limits of analytical variation. Any deviation from the expected result indicates any one of the following:. Hence utmost care has to be taken whilst manufacturing a premix. The primary purpose of packaging for premix is to maintain the stability of micronutrients and to protect the integrity of the premix. Improperly packaged premixes experience considerable loss in the potency of various sensitive ingredients. Selection or designing of packaging material should be according to the local climatic conditions. It should bear following properties:.

The different types of packaging materials that could be use are glass containers, aluminium foil, paper and plastics. Ideally, aluminium foil lined multilayered paper bags provides an excellent barrier against light, moisture, oxygen, odour and flavour. Hence for very sensitive ingredients and where cost is not a constraint, aluminium foil package is the material of choice. The quality of premix is also affected by the storage conditions in the premises until it is transported through distribution channels.

The following steps are recommended during warehouse storage:. When stored under such conditions the consumer is guaranteed of its label claim. The raw materials must be analysed first and only then incorporated in the premix once it meets all the specifications. The formulator must be strict while considering the nutrient percentage in the raw material. Proper segregation must be done for the approved and rejected materials.

Care should be exercised while actually taking the material for production. The raw material must be sieved to omit any foreign and oversized material, if necessary process before use.


This method must be fool proof and verifiable through a system of physical weight and book record checks. A preinclusion check should be performed by quality assurance personnel whereby random check is made for the number of bags, quality of material, their weights, cleanliness of mixer, integrity of packaging material and labeling.

If any deviation is observed corrective steps should be taken immediately so that the error is not carried on to the final product. A post manufacturing check is necessary to assure that premix manufactured is free of lumps and freely flowable. Cross contamination should be eliminated while manufacturing quality premix. It becomes a matter of concern when drugs get carried over from one premix to another that is meant for another segment and where the contaminated drug is toxic to other species. There are three main methods that can reduce cross contamination in premix:. Flushing- This is a technique whereby an ingredient such as ground grain or any carrier material is run through the system after a batch of medicated premix is produced.

This ingredient will pick up much of the contamination in the system and then must be bagged up and used later when premix containing the same medicament is made. Sequencing-This technique involves the production of feeds containing the same medication at the same time. This reduces the number of times contamination may occur. A run of the medicated premix would then be followed by production of type of premix that would not be affected by a low level of a contamination.

Mixer cleanout procedures-The mixer must be cleaned thoroughly before and after use with brush and compressed air. A thorough washout programme must be performed at least once a week.

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Care should be taken to ensure that the mixer is clean and dry before use. The quality of finished premix is assured by analysing the same in the laboratory. The premix must be analysed for physico-chemical properties. The premix should be dispatched only if all the parameters are satisfactory. It may be difficult to analyse each and every batch manufactured for complete analysis and hence a sampling plan must be designed mentioning the analysis frequency of such premixes.

Premix is a critical input in feeds. The use of a quality premix is an important feature in any livestock operation leading to improved safety, reliability and performance.

The production of quality premix thus deserves careful and professional attention. Product quality must be built into and not merely tested in, the product. Monitoring of all the critical points affecting the quality of premix is the best solution for minimizing the deviations from standards.

It is only through well organized, adequately staffed and accurately performed process and formulation controls that a desired quality of the premix may be achieved. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations, Quality control in feed milling, procedures for an effective program, ASA. No one feed ingredient can supply all of the nutrients and energy catfish need for best growth.

Commercial catfish feeds contain a mixture of feedstuffs and vitamin and mineral premixes that provide the right essential nutrients as well as the energy necessary to use the nutrients. The amount of each feed ingredient depends on several factors, including nutrient requirements, ingredient cost, availability of each ingredient, and processing characteristics. Feedstuffs containing 20 percent crude protein or more are considered protein supplements. Protein supplements may be classified as animal or plant proteins.

Manufacturing A Quality Premix

Animal proteins used in animal feeds come from inedible tissues from meat packing or rendering plants, milk products, and marine sources. Animal proteins are generally considered to be higher quality than plant proteins. Animal protein is essential in the diet of fry and small fingerling catfish. Fish meal prepared from whole fish appears to be a better protein supplement than other animal proteins. But fish meal does not appear to be essential in the diet of catfish after they reach a size of 6 to 7 inches. Animal proteins can be replaced by plant proteins in catfish food fish feeds without affecting growth and feed efficiency.

The main plant protein sources used in catfish feeds are oilseed meals, such as soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and peanut meal. Some other oilseed meals could be used but are not generally available on a timely basis and at an economical cost per unit of protein.

Catfish nutrition: feeds and feed formulation | The Fish Site

Abrief description of various animal and plant protein sources that can be used in catfish feeds is given in the chart on the next page. Energy supplements are feedstuffs that contain less than 20 percent crude protein. The include grain and grain byproducts and animal fat or vegetable oil. It is important to include nonprotein energy sources in catfish diets because they are the most economical source of energy, and they prevent dietary protein from being used for energy.

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They typically sell their product at a lower price than the original brand-name drug because the generic manufacturer does not have to recover the original costs of drug development and usually spends much less on marketing. A generic drug may be sold under its generic name or under a brand name a branded generic drug but not under the brand name used by the original patent-holder. Not all off-patent drugs have generic versions. Sometimes a drug is too hard to duplicate, or adequate tests are not available to prove that the generic drug acts the same as the brand-name drug.

Sometimes the market for the drug is so small that producing another version does not make good business sense. Generic versions of some nonprescription over-the-counter drugs are often sold as house brands by drug chains or cooperatives, usually at a lower cost. These drugs are evaluated in the same way that generic prescription drugs are evaluated and must meet the same requirements.

Drug Bioavailability

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