Literacies Across Media offers both a vivid account of a group of young readers coming to terms with texts and a radical perspective on the growth of a generation of young readers. It is thought-provoking, fascinating and highly informative reading not only for theoreticians interested in the reading process, but also teachers, librarians, parents and anybody involved with young people and their texts. Zobrazit eKnihu. Routledge Amazon. Literacies Across Media : Playing the Text. Margaret Mackey. Routledge , Obsah Introduction. A description and a framework. Chapter 3 Janice. The beginnings of stories.
Even so, most discussions of digital literacy remain primarily preoccupied with information — and therefore tend to neglect some of the broader cultural uses of the internet not least by young people. Popular guides to digital literacy have begun to address the need to evaluate online content e. Much of the discussion appears to assume that information can be assessed simply in terms of its factual accuracy.
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From this perspective, a digitally literate individual is one who can search efficiently, who compares a range of sources, and sorts authoritative from non-authoritative, and relevant from irrelevant, documents Livingstone et al. Bettina Fabos provides a useful review of such attempts to promote more critical evaluation of online content.
Students may feel inadequate assessing sites when they are unfamiliar with the topics they cover; and they largely fail to apply these criteria, instead emphasising speedy access to information and appealing visual design. They imply that sites can be easily divided into those that are reliable, trustworthy and factual, and those that are biased and should be avoided. In practice, such approaches often discriminate against low-budget sites produced by individuals, and in favour of those whose high-end design features and institutional origins lend them an air of credibility.
As this implies, digital literacy is much more than a functional matter of learning how to use a computer and a keyboard, or how to do online searches. In relation to the internet, for example, children need to learn how to locate and select material — how to use browsers, hyperlinks and search engines, and so on. But to stop there is to confine digital literacy to a form of instrumental or functional literacy.
The skills that children need in relation to digital media are not confined to those of information retrieval. As with print, they also need to be able to evaluate and use information critically if they are to transform it into knowledge. This means asking questions about the sources of that information, the interests of its producers, and the ways in which it represents the world; and understanding how these technological developments are related to broader social, political and economic forces.
This more critical notion of literacy has been developed over many years in the field of media education; and in this respect, I would argue that we need to extend approaches developed by media educators to encompass digital media. There are four broad conceptual aspects that are generally regarded as essential components of media literacy see Buckingham, While digital media clearly raise new questions, and require new methods of investigation, this basic conceptual framework continues to provide a useful means of mapping the field:.
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Like all media, digital media represent the world, rather than simply reflect it. They offer particular interpretations and selections of reality, which inevitably embody implicit values and ideologies. Informed users of media need to be able to evaluate the material they encounter, for example by assessing the motivations of those who created it and by comparing it with other sources, including their own direct experience. In the case of information texts, this means addressing questions about authority, reliability and bias; and it also necessarily invokes broader questions about whose voices are heard and whose viewpoints are represented, and whose are not.
A truly literate individual is able not only to use language, but also to understand how it works. This means acquiring analytical skills, and a meta-language for describing how language functions. Literacy also involves understanding who is communicating to whom, and why. In the context of digital media, young people need to be aware of the growing importance of commercial influences — particularly as these are often invisible to the user. But digital literacy also involves a broader awareness of the global role of advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and how they influence the nature of the information that is available in the first place.
Of course, this awareness should also extend to non-commercial sources and interest groups, who are increasingly using the web as a means of persuasion and influence. This means understanding how media are targeted at audiences, and how different audiences use and respond to them. In the case of the internet, this entails an awareness of the ways in which users gain access to sites, how they are addressed and guided or encouraged to navigate , and how information is gathered about them. It also means recognising the very diverse ways in which the medium is utilised, for example by different social groups, and reflecting on how it is used in everyday life — and indeed how it might be used differently.
How might these broad approaches be applied specifically to studying the World Wide Web? Figure 1 indicates some of the issues that might be addressed here, and is adapted from Buckingham Different issues would undoubtedly need to be explored in relation to other uses of the internet, such as e-mail, instant messaging or blogging. It incorporates questions about bias and reliability, but sets these within a broader concern with representation. The approach also entails a reflexive understanding of how these factors impact on the user — how users are targeted and invited to participate, what they actually do with the medium, and what they find meaningful and pleasurable.
To date, most proposals for teaching about games in schools have been developed by teachers of English or language arts e. Beavis, In terms of our four-part framework, the emphasis is on language and to some extent on representation; but there is little engagement with the more sociological issues to do with production and audience that are important concerns for media teachers. Clearly, there are many elements that games share with other representational or signifying systems. However, analysing games simply in terms of these representational dimensions produces at best a partial account.
This points to the necessary interpenetration of the representational and the ludic dimensions of games — that is, the aspects that make games playable Carr et al. There is a growing literature, both in the field of game design and in academic research, that seeks to identify basic generative and classificatory principles in this respect e. It is these ludic aspects that distinguish games from movies or books, for example. As this implies, the analysis of games requires new and distinctive methods that cannot simply be transferred from other media — although this is equally the case when we compare television and books, for example.
Obviously, these suggestions will vary according to the needs and interests of the students; although it should be possible to address the general conceptual issues at any level. Finally, it is important to recognise that these critical understandings can and should be developed through the experience of media production, and not merely through critical analysis.
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The growing accessibility of this technology means that quite young children can easily produce multimedia texts, and even interactive hypermedia — and increasing numbers of children have access to such technology in their homes. Indeed, new media are a key aspect of the much more participatory media culture that is now emerging — in the form of blogging, social networking, game-making, small-scale video production, podcasting, social software, and so on Jenkins, Growing numbers of teachers have sought to harness the productive possibilities of these media, albeit in quite limited ways.
Here, students produce their own multimedia texts in the form of websites or CD-ROMs, often combining written text, visual images, simple animation, audio and video material. Vivi Lachs , for example, describes a range of production activities undertaken with primary school students in learning about science, geography or history.
Other potential uses of digital media have emerged from arts education. Rebecca Sinker , for example, describes an online multimedia project which set out to develop links between an infant school and its community.
Using multimedia authoring software, the project brought together photography, video, drawing, story-telling, digital imaging, sound and text. These approaches are certainly interesting and productive; but there are two factors that distinguish them from the use of digital production in the context of media education. In fact, these digital tools can enable students to conceptualise the activity of production in much more powerful ways than was possible with analogue media. This is particularly apparent at the point of editing, where complex questions about the selection, manipulation and combination of images and, in the case of video, of sounds can be addressed in a much more accessible way.
The kinds of work I have referred to in this article are by no means new. On the contrary, they draw on an existing practice in schools that has a long history see Buckingham, As in any other area of education, there is both good and bad practice in media education; and there is currently an alarming shortage of specialist trained media teachers. Nevertheless, it is clear that effective media education depends upon teachers recognising and respecting the knowledge students already possess about these media — while also acknow-ledging that there are limitations to that knowledge, which teachers need to address.
I have argued here for an extension of media literacy principles to digital texts. Nevertheless, the media literacy model puts issues on the agenda that are typically ignored or marginalised in thinking about techno-logy in education — and particularly in the school subject of ICT.
It raises critical questions that most approaches to information techno-logy in education fail to address, and thereby moves decisively beyond a merely instrumental use of technology. Ultimately, however, my argument here is much broader than simply a call for media education. The metaphor of literacy — while not without its problems — provides one means of imagining a more coherent, and ambitious, approach.
The increasing convergence of contemporary media means that we need to be addressing the skills and competencies — the multiple literacies — that are required by the whole range of contemporary forms of communication. Rather than simply adding media or digital literacy to the curriculum menu, or hiving off information and communication technology into a separate school subject, we need a much broader reconceptualisation of what we mean by literacy in a world that is increasingly dominated by electronic media.
Oppgrader til nyeste versjon av Internet eksplorer for best mulig visning av siden. Hopp til bunn-navigering. English Norsk. Frigi tilgang. Umberto Eco, Multiple literacies Over the past twenty years, there have been many attempts to extend the notion of literacy beyond its original application to the medium of writing. Towards digital literacy The notion of digital literacy is not new. Media literacy goes online This more critical notion of literacy has been developed over many years in the field of media education; and in this respect, I would argue that we need to extend approaches developed by media educators to encompass digital media.
While digital media clearly raise new questions, and require new methods of investigation, this basic conceptual framework continues to provide a useful means of mapping the field: Representation. Case 1: Web literacy How might these broad approaches be applied specifically to studying the World Wide Web? The presence or absence of particular viewpoints or aspects of experience. The reliability, veracity and bias of online sources. The implicit values or ideologies of web content, and the discourses it employs.
How the hypertextual linked structure of websites encourages users to navigate in particular ways. The significance of commercial influences, and the role of advertising, promotion and sponsorship.