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It is autoimmune and is often linked to MS. It is an orphan disease, meaning that it has a very low prevalence in society, with people per , inhabitants affected. There are currently no specific treatments, with corticosteroids and immunosuppressants used to control the symptoms. Spanish Society of Neurology. November If you have any health problems, you should always consult your doctor and competent healthcare personnel.

Legal warning. The scientific observation and systematization of knowledge began in the late 19th century. In drawings already existed of patients with multiple sclerosis in the work Pathological Anatomy: illustrations of the elementary forms of disease. Based on this, Jean-Martin Charcot , summarised the previous data and classified the disease.

The natural history of multiple sclerosis

ACTH and corticosteroids were used in the treatment of relapsing MS after the seventies, while after doctors began administering immunomodulatory drugs capable of modifying the natural history of the disease. Any substance, either within the body itself or outside of it, that is capable of inducing the production of antibodies.

Multiple Sclerosis - The State of the Art

Antigen-presenting cells. Cells that contain in their membrane HLA molecules and peptide self, such as myelin, or foreign, such as viruses or bacteria are called antigen-presenting cells. Impairment of motor coordination due to a lack of conscious, deep sensitivity spinal ataxia or impairment of the cerebellar system cerebellar ataxia.

Multiple Sclerosis Sufferers | GAEM

Autoimmune disease. A disease in which there is a deprogramming of the immune system, which attacks not only dangerous foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, etc. Brain barrier. Barrier between the blood vessels and the tissues of the brain, the purpose of which is to restrict or filter substances that can pass from the blood to the brain.

This barrier protects the brain from the effects of many hazardous substances, but also hampers the administration of drugs to the brain. Cell receptor. All body cells have surface receptors through which they interact with cells or soluble factors e. There are receptors for cytokines, for growth factors, etc. T cells have more antigen receptors, which help them to recognise these when they are expressed by HLA molecules. Cerebrospinal fluid.

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Colourless fluid which is composed partly of filtered substances from the blood and partly secretions released by brain cells, circulating around the cavities of the brain and spinal cord. Doctors use different techniques to study and detect abnormalities associated with multiple sclerosis. Disappearance of the myelin sheath that surrounds the nerve fibres of neurons. It can be observed in certain diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis EAE. Multiple sclerosis is a disease unique to humans. Animals do not suffer from it. However, researchers have developed a similar disease in animals of different species mouse, rat, guinea pig, monkey, etc. This disease induced in experimental animals is called experimental autoimmune encephalitis. A feeling of lack of energy, exhaustion or tiredness that can accompany activity or which may exist even without exercise. A generic name given to a series of chemical compounds that contain this element.

Used as a contrast agent in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in order to improve image quality and highlight any abnormal tissue.


In multiple sclerosis it helps differentiate between old and new lesions. The function of these molecules is to express antigens on the surface of cells so that they can be recognized by appropriate T cells. Thus, after interaction with the T cells, an immune response is initiated against this antigen. If the antigen is foreign e.

The basic facts about multiple sclerosis are well known: it is the most common neurologic disease of young adults, usually beginning with episodic attacks of neurologic symptoms, then entering a progressive phase some years later. Its onset has an average age of 30, and occurs in about 1 in individuals of European ancestry living primarily in temperate climates.

There appears to be a complex interaction between a genetic predisposition and an environmental trigger that initiates the disease. But these facts do not convey the impact of the disease on the people whose lives it affects. While these can be seen in a lumbar puncture, the process of having a lumbar puncture can be very unpleasant, and is not normally something that people with MS want to repeat too often. However, checking neurofilament levels can indicate how active your MS is, and how well it is responding to treatment.

Recently, studies have begun to map out how the concentrations of neurofilaments in the CNS relate to the levels of neurofilaments in blood serum. The hope is to be able to diagnose and track MS activity using a blood test, instead of a lumbar puncture. It is only with the help of our donors, supporters and volunteers that we can continue training MS specialists, funding vital research and providing trusted information to the , people living with MS across the UK.

What Causes MS?

Print this page. Skip to navigation. Early reports of MS. Augustus d'Este The first identifiable instance of MS does not occur until the early 19th century. The medical history of MS. Jean-Martin Charcot In a lecture in , Charcot expanded on the work of his predecessors to describe the distinct characteristics of the condition he named sclerose en plaques. MS in the 20th century Myelin , the fatty protein that surrounds nerves in the central nervous system, had been identified in the late nineteenth century, though its significance in MS wasn't understood until the 20th century.

Advances in technology. Lumbar puncture Lumbar puncture - the extraction of a sample of the fluid surrounding the spine - had been used in medicine since the 19th century. Imaging Imaging techniques that can show damage caused by MS began to appear in the s. Neurofilaments The proteins found in the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord CNS indicate active inflammation and damage happening to the nerves. References Murray TJ. Multiple sclerosis: the history of a disease. New York: Demos Medical Publishing; More about the book on the Amazon website.

How is MS diagnosed?