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It had a less exaggerated shape than previous dresses, allowing for greater mobility. Madame de Pompadour favored frills and lace and liked to highlight her neck with velvet adorned with a flower or jewel. One of these was the polonaise, which was inspired by styles of dress from Poland. It had a tight-fitting body and was bulky at the back where it was gathered up with a cord.

It was shorter than the French dress, allowed the underskirt and ankles to be seen, and was easier to move around in. This dress included elements inspired by male fashion, such as a short jacket, broad lapels, and long sleeves.

Women in France Since 1789: The Meanings of Difference

At any official ceremony ladies were required to cover their hands and arms with gloves if their clothes were sleeveless. The dictates of fashion said that only in the summer could they wear gloves revealing half the length of their fingers. One of the most important of all accessories was the fan. The culture of Versailles mingled flirtation with concealment, and fans were used to send flirtatious signals as part of a complex, gestural language of seduction.

Underlying the frivolity of 18th-century French fashion were hard economics. The appetite for clothes among the French upper classes gave rise to a dynamic textile industry, which had been assiduously guarded by the protectionist policies introduced by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, minister to Louis XIV. The so-called royal manufactories helped foster a booming silk industry in Lyon.

Technical progress and advances in dying further bolstered private enterprise, and factories turning out stockings, hats, and lingerie thrived. She opened her own fashion store in Paris in , and quickly became the dressmaker of choice. Recognition of her talents was cemented by the Duchess of Chartres, who introduced her to Marie-Antoinette herself. Her creations were exported to courts in London, Venice, Vienna, Lisbon, and many other capitals.

Women in France Since The Meanings of Difference by Susan K. Foley

Rose also created dolls attired in specially made clothes. These were bought by collectors, or sent as gifts to other European courts.

The French Revolution - ep02 - BKP - cbse class 9 history chapter 1

These figurines also allowed foreign ladies to keep up with the French fashions and order the latest, most elegant dresses. Marie-Antoinette helped keep France the capital of European fashion throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. This antipathy would eventually bring down the monarchy and lead her to the guillotine in The same is true of immigration and openness to the world, which stood in opposition to cultural, social and economical protectionism.

In France, the divide grew in several political realms. Whether or not these divisions still exist today is open to debate. What is certain is that there is still a significant difference between the conservative, more authoritarian right that favours an economy in which the state plays a regulatory and protective role, and the liberal right that favours deregulation, less restrictive labour laws and more entrepreneurship. In truth, for each overarching area of political debate, there are at least two right wings and two left wings.

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Concerning family values and gay marriage, for instance, a minority on the right are open to increased tolerance, while a minority on the left are rather reluctant. The same can be said of immigration. Not everyone on the right is convinced by restrictive immigration policies, while open immigration policies are far from universally approved of on the left. Centrist positions are often difficult to pin down.

Those who self-identify as centrists sometimes occupy the middle ground on certain main political issues but stand to the left on one issue and to the right on another.

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Centrists from the Christian Democratic tradition, who favoured social protections, dialogue between workers and management, and oppose unchecked economic liberalism, were also conservative on family issues. While it is possible to identify broad schools of thought that can be classified as right, left or centre over the long term, policies vary greatly over time.

We cannot ascribe unchanging, universal content to these categories.

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These days, we cannot even say that the right is for the status quo or that the left wants change, as has sometimes been claimed. When it comes to the welfare state, people on the right clamour for reform, whereas those on the left want to defend social protections. Still, in each era, centre, left and right have served as signposts, allowing us to classify political parties, politicians and the ideas they promote.

The Many Roles of Women in the French Revolution

A strong proponent of liberal economic policies, he also supports a certain social safety net and the integration of immigrants while opposing discrimination against minorities. He is trying to attract moderates from the left and the right. This view can be traced back to opinion surveys from the s.

A growing number of people now claim that the concepts of left and right have lost all meaning. Yet these same people, in the same surveys, happily self-identify on a continuum of left to right and define their political identity in these dichotomous terms. They also respond differently to a variety of political issues , as compared to their self-established position on that scale. This apparent paradox can be explained. Many people who personally feel more left wing or right wing according to their convictions also believe that governments tend to implement similar policies when in power.

They therefore expect clear political platforms that can be summarised as left wing or right wing but are ultimately disappointed by the outcomes. As a result, candidates make promises to attract votes without taking into account how difficult they may be to implement. But selling right- or left-wing ideas during an election campaign also serves to make people dream — capturing hearts and minds at the expense of considering the realities that elected governments must face.

This article was originally published in French. Screen music and the question of originality - Miguel Mera — London, Islington. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom.