Political initiatives and policies are also discussed, as well as social views, customs, and practices related to the problem or social issue. Discussions about how the countries plan to deal with these social problems are also included. These volumes present a comprehensive and engaging approach for the study of international social conditions and problems.
The goal is to provide a convenient framework for readers to examine specific social problems, how they are viewed, and what actions are being taken by different countries around the world. For example, how is a problem like crime and crime control handled in third world countries? How is substance abuse controlled in industrialized countries?
How are poverty and homelessness handled in the poorest countries? How does culture influence the definition, and response to, domestic violence in different countries? How does a national philosophy impact the definition of and response to child abuse? These questions and more will be answered by the volumes in this series. As we learn more about our counterparts in other countries, they become real to us, and our worldview cannot help but change.
We will think of others as we think of those we know. They will be people who get up in the morning and go to work. We will see people who are struggling with relationships, attending religious services, being born, and growing old, and dying. This series will cover issues that will add to your knowledge about contemporary social society. You will be able to see how specific social problems are managed by governments and individuals confronting the consequences of these social dilemmas. By studying one problem from various angles, you will be better able to grasp the totality of the situation, while at the same time speculating as to how solutions used in one country could be incorporated in another.
Finally, this series will allow you to compare and contrast how these social issues impact individuals in different countries and how the effect is dissimilar or similar to your own experiences. As series adviser, it is my hope that these volumes, which are unique in the history of publishing, will increase your understanding and appreciation of your counterparts around the world.
This phenomenon has moved to new dimensions over the last couple of centuries. The work of children is a global issue. The manifestations vary widely in impact depending on the conditions Boyden, of poverty, economy, history, and position in the global social and economic systems. Poverty is the major precipitating factor, but education, rigid social and cultural roles, economic greed, family size, geography, and global economics all contribute.
Child labor is found in poor and wealthy economies. Child labor is reported in terms of varying degrees of exploitation, from oppressive to hazardous. Central to this discussion is the definition of child labor. Questions many countries struggle with include: What is a child, what is labor, and what entails work? It is globally recognized that there is a period during the life span when a person is a child. Nevertheless, the world debates at what point in life childhood actually ends and what the capacities and responsibilities of children are along the road to adulthood.
According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child , a child is a person under eighteen years of age. This definition, however, is seen as emerging from a Western concept of child as well as a political premise Ennew, Other cultures interpret childhood across other parameters. Cultures worldwide mark the upper age limit of the child at various ages. This age can be different for girls and boys in the same culture. Defining childhood can be tied to age as well as performance, comprehension, and capabilities. Most Western cultures also establish childhood in terms of developmental periods: infancy, child, and adolescence Archard, The work of children can be helpful to the child, family, and community.
Paid and unpaid child labor can support the family or it can provide the child with money. It is possible for children to continue their education, to benefit economically and socially, and to contribute to family income if they work limited hours in nonabusive conditions Siddiqi and Patrinos, ; World Bank, n.
For example, children in poor countries contribute more to family income in paid and unpaid labor than children in wealthy countries. Child labor can also be developmentally, emotionally, and physically abusive. Child workers are more vulnerable than adult workers, leaving them at risk for exploitation, dangerous conditions, and abuse.
The impact is dependent on the age of the child and the conditions of employment. Children work longer hours and have lower pay than adults Bequele and Boyden, Some children are sold into labor with no hope of getting out. Some are abducted. Children as young as four and five years of age are forced into servitude. The economic gain from the labor of children can be vital to the survival of all family members in the poorest of families. Strategies to reduce child labor focus on poverty reduction and related issues, including education, support services for children and families, and the elimination of gender oppression.
Persistent poverty fuels the perpetuation of abusive child labor. When the income level of a country increases, the incidence and proportion of child laborers decreases. Child labor has decreased in the parts of Asia where poverty and fertility rates have decreased. In Latin America many children who work do so for wages in direct response to issues of poverty. In places like Senegal, India, Ghana, and Indonesia on the other hand, most child laborers work with their families without pay.
Child labor afflicts marginalized groups such as indigenous people, and in Latin America, the Afro-Latin Americans. This plight of oppressed populations advances the cause of the privileged classes. In Europe it is immigrant and Roma children who are more likely to work and more likely to work under abusive conditions Dorman, The rapid migration of families from rural to urban environments has increased child labor rates, with new poverty arising from the growing urban population Siddiqi and Patrinos, In urban areas, children work predominantly in the trade and service industries, but also in domestic service, construction, and manufacturing Human Rights Watch, ; Siddiqi and Patrinos, ; World Bank, n.
In addition to these instruments, ILO Recommendations and present proposals that enhance the previous ones. Interestingly, these international standard-setting instruments do not provide a definition for child labor.
Together, however, these instruments discern general instructions for: a setting a minimum age to enter employment, the parameters for light work, the number of work hours for the age, and the boundaries for defining economic exploitation; b the occupations, work activities, work conditions, and employment agreements of worst forms of child labor; and c programs for child laborers, with special attention regarding girls in employment. These instruments are based on Western understandings of childhood, generating concern in other countries about culturally grounded definitions that view child work and child labor from different perspectives.
In most countries child work is viewed as an apprenticeship or other form of training, which prepares children for future occupations. With the changing economic conditions shifting the majority of the population into dire poverty, children are often compelled to supplement the family income. In countries where the economies and educational facilities are not fully developed, fourteen years is allowed as the minimum work age. Children worldwide encounter these work conditions on a daily basis. The worst forms of child labor exist in both wealthy and poor countries and are identified in ILO Convention in article 3: a all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom, and forced or compulsory labor, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict; b the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances; c the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties; and d work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children.
Human Rights Watch, , pp. Children are found in occupations such as carpet weaving, cooking, and tailoring.
Child Labor: A Global View (A World View of Social Issues) - PDF Free Download
They work at jobs in agriculture, entertainment, the hospitality industry, trading, and light industry. They carry out a multitude of activities such as hauling wood and water, brick making, wrapping cigarettes, domestic chores, and child care. Some children live and work on the streets in order to survive day to day. They are exploited in the commercial sex industry and engaged in the drug trade. Of these, million were between the ages of five and fourteen years; 73 million were under ten years of age.
The Asian-Pacific region had the largest number of children from the ages of five to fourteen years at work, an estimated In the same age category, sub-Saharan Africans accounted for 48 million. In Latin America and the Caribbean, In wealthy countries, including the U. Child labor rates are higher in rural areas, where the work is predominantly agrarian; 90 percent of child laborers are engaged in agricultural work. Urbanization and the presence of a female labor force also affect the rates of child labor Drenovsky, There were 8.
Since illegal activities such as drug trafficking and the commercial sexual exploitation of children are clandestine in nature, data collection is difficult and estimates are conservative. These estimates do not include children involved in domestic chores, stirring concern among child advocates around the world. Wealthy Nations Expanding the definition of economically active children, the numbers in wealthy countries, including the United States U.
In spite of the high level of participation in school, child employment rates can be high. In the U. In Western Europe the employment rates for youth ages fifteen through nineteen range from 5. The employment rate in Australia is Education Child participation in education increases as the availability and quality of the education improves. It is estimated that 50 to 70 percent of child workers also attend school World Bank, n. Additionally, childhood education rates are correlated with family income, parent educational level, social class, and gender.
In some countries families cannot afford to educate all of their children, so they decide which children will attend school and which will work to help support the family. Gender While some of the literature indicates that gender does not appear to impact the overall participation in work for children, other literature points to statistical difficulties. This leads to the problems in showing the extent of female involvement in work.
Officially, boys in the older age group fifteen through eighteen years are more likely to work than girls. When girls work, however, they tend to work longer hours than boys World Bank, n. Data on female children are underreported for a number of reasons. By fifteen years of age, girls in some regions are given in marriage, especially in many Muslim and traditional cultures Boyden, ; this includes sub-Saharan Africa, where the dominant religion is Islam. When married, girls are considered adults. Further, the involvement of girls in domestic work is not acknowledged as employment Salazar and Glasinovich, Three-fifths of girls are involved in domestic chores.
By high school age the participation of girls in domestic chores is 91 percent ILO, Girls in both rural and urban environments spend significantly more time involved in household labor than boys. This is true even when comparing girls who work with boys who work. Gender stereotyping and roles result in increased vulnerability and the perpetuation of female poverty ILO, In some parts of the world, gender affects educational choices Bequele and Boyden, This leaves girls more vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation.
The risk of exploitation faced by girls results from a combination of vulnerabilities including poverty, race, lack of educational and training resources, and no viable employment opportunities ILO, Unfortunately, accurate statistics are not available. While boys are also vulnerable to sexual exploitation, the vast majority of victims are females ILO, The consequences of these forms of child labor are tragic not only in the physical harm to children but also in the emotional abuse inflicted by pimps and captors.
Child Soldiers As many as three hundred thousand child soldiers as young as eight years of age have recently been used in at least thirty-three armed conflicts globally. Refugee and orphaned children face perhaps the greatest risk of conscription. Although boys are used more often, girls are also used and face the added danger of rape. These children serve not only in service roles but also in combat. They are at times forced to commit atrocities against family and neighbors, separating them further from a potential future in those environments Human Rights Watch, Global Economy The economic policies established by Western governments and financial institutions foster the development of global systems in which parents in poorer countries must rely on the labor of children Seabrook, Consumers have the power to undermine the use of child laborers in both the agricultural and manufacturing sectors.
These children might then be forced into even more hazardous forms of employment. It is the responsibility of wealthy industrialized nations to question and challenge their position of privilege in the international economy. To bring about a safe transition in the reduction of child labor, consumers play a critical role in the direction of the world economy and its subsequent impact on the labor of children.
The wealthy nations, including the U. It would also be more effective in attacking child labor than boycotting isolated imports. Western nations and international lending institutions advocate free trade and neoliberal economic reforms. These structures perpetuate their control and superior economic position while protecting strategic industries such as steel and agriculture with tariffs and subsidies. In many cases these policies and international aid only exacerbate the economic challenges of poor nations. Proposed strategies for eliminating child labor are multifaceted, addressing the overlapping issues of poverty reduction, economic development, improved access to education, and ending gendered oppression.
International laws and conventions are establishing new norms. On June 17, , an international convention was established that prohibited the most abusive forms of child labor, including child slavery, bondage, prostitution, pornography, drug trafficking, forced military conscription, and work that is harmful physically and psychologically.
This was ILO Convention , which calls for a ban on abusive child labor. It was ratified by nations in just three years ILO, The U. Most countries have policies and regulations regarding minimum work age and working conditions. They are, however, difficult to enforce. Regulatory and legislative interventions are perhaps the most effective in addressing bonded labor, hazardous working conditions, and child prostitution.
Stricter enforcement of laws against bonded child labor and trafficking is a significant component in addressing the abuses encountered by street children. Increasing public awareness, changing norms and values in opposition to abusive child labor, and increasing the education and support of females outside marriage are all critical to permanent change Siddiqi and Patrinos, ; World Bank, n. An increasing role of nongovernmental organizations NGOs in raising awareness and supporting social activism can have powerful repercussions in collaboration with the engagement of all media sources.
Support services—such as literacy programs, food and shelter assistance, and other resources—help children and families improve their current conditions and long-term prospects. Support services have been provided particularly for children working in the informal urban sector. They have also been provided in rural areas and for young domestic workers, who are primarily female. Helping children remain in school decreases the risk of the more abusive forms of child labor, including bonded labor.
Reducing the costs of education and making schedules flexible are additional factors in increasing accessibility. Flexible scheduling of school is particularly important in rural areas where children are needed to work in the fields. In addition, increasing the participation of females in education and economic development are recognized as effective strategies in the reduction of abusive child labor. The focus and emphasis of each chapter varies as the issues and needs of the country and region differ.
Each examination of child labor is placed within the historical, social, political, and economic context globally and nationally. The book starts with a review of child labor in Bangladesh, which is abysmally poor. This country is home to a myriad of abusive and often deadly child labor practices, including trafficking in children, which is one of the most challenging of child labor issues.
The plight of children in the garment industry provides a significant focus for this chapter. In examining Brazil, a country experiencing increasing economic stress, a view is provided of families marginalized economically and physically. Children participate in the formal and informal economic systems and work to contribute to the income their families need for survival. Among the most abusive conditions of child labor in the Dominican Republic is the growing commercial sex industry, including sex tourism. The reemergence of child labor in the Republic of Georgia parallels the political and economic shifts following the collapse of the former USSR.
The work of children on the streets and farms supplements the income of families struggling with poverty. It also places children at risk for exploitation from abusive child labor. These children are vulnerable to poor health and disadvantaged in education. Child soldiers and the trafficking of child workers in sex tourism remain serious issues in a nation struggling to survive economically.
Historically, many children have worked in Honduras, a highly agricultural country. Across the past few decades, however, there have been marked changes in labor with severe and profound social implications as young girls are lured off farms to work in factories maquilas. More children work in India than in any other country. Estimates place the number of working children at to million. A significant number are engaged in bonded labor, a form of servitude that often passes from generation to generation. Political changes, economic instability, poverty, a population shift to the cities, and an influx of foreign refugees have contributed to the increase of child labor in Iran.
Some of the worst conditions are found among children weaving carpets under intolerable conditions, with a new and growing population of street children. The pattern of increasing child labor in Mexico follows a pattern typical of Latin America. As poverty has increased, so has child labor.
In order to survive, poor families are forced to draw upon all family members to contribute. A cultural mix of black African, white, Indian, and colored people is the context for child labor in South Africa. The issue is further marked by the lingering effects of apartheid and institutionalized racism. Although apartheid was outlawed in , black African children are still most likely to be caught up in the web of oppressive child labor.
The chapter on South Korea illustrates the invisibility of child labor typical of industrialized nations. The prevalence and specific forms of child labor in South Korea are interwoven with the trafficking of women as sex workers in Southeast Asia. Thailand is a poor country with a long history of children in the labor force. In the United States it is assumed that children work in order to make spending money.
It is a wealthy country with many resources. Yet child labor, including abusive child labor, continues. The book ends with the chapter on child labor in Zimbabwe. In this nation, child labor is entrenched in the legacy of colonialism, which institutionalized racism. Zimbabwe has a large youth population that cannot be accommodated in the formal workforce. African children and families are hardest hit by poverty, marginalization, and disenfranchisement.
New York: Routledge. Bequele, A. International Labour Review 2 : — Boyden, J. Myers, ed. Protecting working children. London: Zed Books. Innocenti Essays No. Ling, and W. Dorman, P. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office. Drenovsky, C. Journal of Comparative Family Studies — Ennew, E. Development Manual 4. London: Save the Children. Hodgkin, R. Human Rights Watch. New York: Human Rights Watch. Images of child labor: Child labor and the global village.
International Labor Organization. International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour. Otis, J. Pasztor, and E. Child Welfare 53 5 : — Salazar, M. Schlemmer, B. New York: Zed Books. Seabrook, J. Financial Times August Siddiqi, F. HCOWP Human Capital Development and Operation Policies. World Bank. United Nations. Child labor: Issues and directions for the World Bank. East Bengalis were crucial support for the partition of India in when it became part of Pakistan. As East Pakistanis, they struggled for its independence in a civil war in In the popular imagination of many, however, Bangladesh is perhaps better known for its natural tragedies—floods, cyclones, and famines—that shape its agriculture and patterns of rural survival and provide the basis for what former U.
Iowa , was at least in some measure a response to a concern with child labor in Bangladesh, a country that is a major source of low-end apparel for the American market. Today Bangladesh remains the eighth-most-populous country in the world, with a current population of almost million, a land area of 55, square miles, and a population density of 2, per square mile. Forty percent of 14 CHILD LABOR the population is under the age of fifteen, life expectancy is fifty-nine years, and infant and child mortality stand at 66 per 1, and 94 per 1,, respectively.
Bangladesh is one of only four countries in the world where males outnumber females. In —96, sex ratios for rural and urban areas were estimated at and respectively down, from and in ADB, , p. Bangladeshis are predominately Muslim 83 percent , with the remaining population primarily Hindu followed by Christians and tribal groups. The language spoken is Bangla and the most common ethnic identity is Bangladeshi.
The economy is market-based, with the government owning most utilities, transport companies, and large manufacturing and distribution firms. A middle class is growing in Bangladesh. Notwithstanding these changes, foreign aid continues to be an important source of national income.
Today Bangladesh has a parliamentary democracy. The prime minister was first elected in following a broad-based social movement calling for the ouster of Gen. Mohammed Ershad — The formal institutions of democracy in Bangladesh function with limited accountability and public input. These forms include a parliament, an active opposition, a free print media, a judiciary, open elections, and the right to free speech.
Such democratic institutions and practices follow two decades of military rule, which began in with the assassination of Sheik Mujibur Rahman, but today remain incomplete with only limited accountability. Human rights, for example, are guaranteed by law but not always protected in practice. As a predominantly rural country, two major river systems, the Padma Ganges and the Jamuna Brahmaputra , enrich the alluvial soil. Except for the Chittagong Hills, Bangladesh is low-lying, with approximately 6 percent of its total land area permanently under water. Two-thirds of the land experiences flooding, which contributes to soil fertility.
However, it often results in the loss of life and accounts for significant losses of crops and property. Marked by mild winters and hot monsoon summers, Bangladeshis also endure periodic droughts and cyclones. Such dramatic changes in weather are especially devastating for the rural poor and landless, who are among the least able to fight against the high prevalence of waterborne diseases, water pollution, groundwater contamination by naturally occurring arsenic, soil degradation and erosion, and deforestation.
Other primary agricultural products include jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and tea, which complement reserves of natural gas, some coal and petroleum, and an industrial sector focused on jute, textiles, cement, ceramic, and garment manufacturing. Significantly, the country renewed its export regime following the dramatic decline of the world market for jute in the early s.
A industrialization policy contributed to the rapid development and expansion of garment manufacturing and fish production, two commodities that account for the majority of foreign currency earnings. In addition to apparel and fish production, other industries include cotton textiles, jute, and tea processing. Changes in the social and political economy of Bangladesh have had contradictory effects on women. In some respects women have been beneficiaries of new labor market opportunities, the diversification of rural and urban production, the increase in education, health, and nutritional resources, and NGO investments.
Because of the rapid growth of the garment industry over the last two decades, employment opportunities have increased faster for women than for men. These patterns are reported mostly in the capital city of Dhaka and the port city of Chittagong. But in other wage-earning jobs, women continue to be grossly underrepresented. Moreover, women continue to have less access to education than men.
Currently it is one of the largest apparel exporters in the world; it is the sixth-largest exporter to the U. In addition to contributing to foreign exchange earnings, the export of labor also contributes to reducing the demand for employment. In , While illegal child labor in export industries has received considerable attention in recent years, since the passage of the Harkin Bill, most child laborers work in agriculture and domestic service. These parts of the economy are less visible to public scrutiny and are usually unregulated, and because production is often carried out on individual land holdings, it is difficult to monitor.
Child labor can take a variety of forms. These forms include bonded labor, quasi-slavery, or a feudal relationship. For example, parents who are indebted to another person might bond their children to them in order to repay the debt. Bangladesh has a tradition of legal codes that prohibit child labor even though such practices continue to occur. This is because some families depend on their children to contribute to family income. In families unable to provide food, clothing, and shelter for their offspring, children may be offered as domestic servants, child-minders ayahs , or agricultural workers to other families or persons.
These children do not receive wages but may be provided the means for their own subsistence. In other cases, especially where agriculture and home-based production are critical sources of family income, children may be forced to work long hours in these enterprises without recompense. In still other cases, children are stolen, marketed or trafficked as laborers, entertainers, or prostitutes, and often taken to other countries where they have few protections or resources to manage their return.
Vignette Shonali is a quiet and serious twelve-year-old who lives with her family in Shibpur, on the outskirts of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh. Her father is a ricksha driver and leaves their small one-room home before the sun rises each morning. Sometimes he works late through the night as well. Everything in their lives got worse after her sister Meena died at twelve years of age in a big fire at the garment factory where both Shonali and Meena worked. Shonali relives her experience of the fire over and over.
The fire broke out on the top floor of the factory building and spread quickly. It was hard to think. It was late in the evening, and Shonali was working on the first floor while Meena was on the top floor. They worked sewing sweaters for export to a company in Europe. When the fire broke out, the building quickly filled with smoke.
Everyone around her started choking and panicking. It was pitch dark since the electricity and lights went off. In the darkness everyone was screaming and ran for the exit door, but it was locked. The workers, all women and girls, were locked in. As it got hotter and smokier in the factory, some women jumped to their deaths from the fourth floor.
Before it was over, hundreds were injured and at least fifty people died. Most were girls in their teens. Among the dead were five girls ages ten through twelve, and three were fourteen years old. As in most dominantly agricultural countries, children have historically worked alongside their parents and extended family members on farms, in fishing, and in trades.
There is also a long history of children working as domestic servants and in light manufacturing. In its broadest terms, child labor has been an accepted practice. It has long been a response to severe poverty. Other estimates run even higher. In addition to working in the garment industry, children can be found working as brick chippers, construction workers, domestic servants, and tea stall servers International Labour Organisation, Children drive rickshas, carry goods for shoppers at markets, roll cigarettes, work in shrimp processing, and are exposed to hazardous conditions in the leather industry.
Numerous laws prohibit child labor. Children under fourteen years old are prohibited from working in factories by the Factories Act. In commercial sites, the Shops and Establishments Act prohibits the employment of children younger than twelve. These laws establish inspection mechanisms against forced labor but, due to scarce resources, they are not consistently enforced.
For children under the age of fifteen, the Employment of Children Act prohibits work in railways and ports.
Prohibitions of child labor laws notwithstanding, such laws are rarely enforced outside of the export garment sector and, even when enforced, penalties for child labor violations are nominal. Along with ineffective law enforcement, the Ministry of Labor is significantly understaffed, with less than inspectors responsible for monitoring , registered factories and establishments. Such a lack of staff support makes it impossible to ensure the enforcement of labor laws to protect the more than 1. While the Factories Act is comprehensive in establishing occupational health and safety standards, the lack of enforcement and only limited penalties for their abridgement means that employers often choose to ignore the law.
Similarly, many fire safety codes exist but are regularly violated, including when factories are located in inappropriate structures or industrial sites or when building access or exit is constrained. As a consequence, numerous lives have been lost to fires because doors have been locked and workers could not escape. For people eighteen years and over, prostitution is legal only with government certification. However, this minimum age requirement is ignored by law enforcement, and those who employ child prostitutes are rarely prosecuted.
Large numbers of child prostitutes can be found working across the country in brothels. Moreover, despite the fact that trafficking for purposes of prostitution carries penalties varying from a ten-year prison sentence to the death penalty, police and local authorities can be easily bribed. Authorities too frequently ignore trafficking in women and children. Girls who are forced to migrate against their will end up in the sex trade. Some are coerced to urban areas as domestic workers or as illegal child laborers in the industrial sector.
For these girls, returning to their places of origin is often not possible given the associated reputation, even if false, and harassment that can accompany females who take off on their own, whether through coercion or not. Eight laws related to child labor are on the books, however, these have not yet been implemented, and no child labor cases have been filed.
Trafficking of people from Bangladesh is not new, as the movement of kidnapped or bonded laborers taken by force or coerced has been going on since well before the turn of the century. Contemporary understandings of trafficking, however, focus more narrowly on young women, girls, and young men who are kidnapped or recruited under false pretexts and forced or coerced into labor. An estimated 10, to 20, Bangladeshi women and children are trafficked each year to major cities in India, Pakistan, and the Middle East. They end up as laborers in the sex trade, as domestic workers, and as camel jockeys and beggars Global March against Child Labour, ; U.
Department of State, Estimates place as many as a thousand underage South Asian camel jockeys working in the United Arab Emirates. While many come from Pakistan and India, increasing numbers are coming from Bangladesh. In recent history, those who work as domestic servants are increasingly found to do so in conditions that resemble servitude.
Many suffer physical abuse and, in some cases, even death. A study of forms of violence against domestic workers found that seven children were tortured, three died from physical torture, two were raped, and nineteen were victimized in other ways U. Women and children are lured into prostitution and other forms of forced servitude by promises of good jobs or marriage. Women and children who live in persistent poverty and destitution and those who live without a family support system, like orphans and widows, are easy prey to the seduction of traffickers.
Unfortunately, regulations, if they exist, are only weakly enforced. Illegal border crossing to support trafficking is easier around the cities of Jessore and Benapole, where border monitoring is lax Global March against Child Labour, For these reasons, the repugnant practices of child abandonment, kidnapping, and trafficking have become increasingly serious and pervasive during the past few decades. The age of most trafficked women and girls ranges from seven through twenty-four years. The Annual Report of the Lawyers for Human Rights and Legal Aid, Pakistan revealed that estimates of about , young women and girls have been trafficked to Pakistan alone, and continue at the rate of to women per month; most end up in prostitution, as do those trafficked to brothels in Kolkata, Mumbai, and Goa.
Figures from the Centre for Women and Children Studies in Bangladesh CWCS confirm similar patterns; most trafficked boys are under the age of ten while most trafficked girls range from eleven through sixteen years old. The child labor issue that received considerable national press during the s was the Harkin Bill, which aimed to restrict the import of goods made by child labor into the U.
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However, government efforts to implement labor reforms were irregular at best. Further, as Puerto Rican feminists, we have always been attentive to understanding the migration experiences of U. Latinas from a gender perspective. For this reason, this volume is attentive to the issues migrant women face and to how race, class, and gender. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Toro-Morn, Marixsa Alicea. No cover image. Read preview. An economic migrant is distinct from someone who is a refugee fleeing persecution.
Many countries have immigration and visa restrictions that prohibit a person entering the country for the purposes of gaining work without a valid work visa. As a violation of a State's immigration laws a person who is declared to be an economic migrant can be refused entry into a country. Treatment of migrants in host countries, both by governments, employers, and original population, is a topic of continual debate and criticism, and the violation of migrant human rights is an ongoing crisis.
Migration and Immigration: A Global View
Major migrant-receiving countries and regions — including Western Europe, North America, Pacific Asia, Australia, and the Gulf States — have not ratified the Convention, even though they are host to the majority of international migrant workers. Some proponents of immigration argue that the freedom of movement both within and between countries is a basic human right, and that the restrictive immigration policies, typical of nation-states, violate this human right of freedom of movement.
Where immigration is permitted, it is typically selective. As of [update] , family reunification accounted for approximately two-thirds of legal immigration to the US every year. Less privileged individuals, including the mass of poor people in low-income countries, cannot avail themselves of the legal and protected immigration opportunities offered by wealthy states. This inequality has also been criticized as conflicting with the principle of equal opportunities. The fact that the door is closed for the unskilled, while at the same time many developed countries have a huge demand for unskilled labor, is a major factor in illegal immigration.
The contradictory nature of this policy—which specifically disadvantages the unskilled immigrants while exploiting their labor—has also been criticized on ethical grounds. Immigration policies which selectively grant freedom of movement to targeted individuals are intended to produce a net economic gain for the host country.
They can also mean net loss for a poor donor country through the loss of the educated minority—a " brain drain ". This can exacerbate the global inequality in standards of living that provided the motivation for the individual to migrate in the first place. One example of competition for skilled labour is active recruitment of health workers from developing countries by developed countries.
A survey of leading economists shows a consensus behind the view that high-skilled immigration makes the average American better off. Whereas the impact on the average native tends to be small and positive, studies show more mixed results for low-skilled natives, but whether the effects are positive or negative, they tend to be small either way.
Competition from immigrants in a particular profession may aggravate underemployment in that profession,  but increase wages for other natives;  for instance, a study in Science found that "the influx of foreign-born computer scientists since the early s Research also suggests that diversity and immigration have a net positive effect on productivity      and economic prosperity.
Studies show that the elimination of barriers to migration would have profound effects on world GDP, with estimates of gains ranging between 67— The size of these effects increases with the ethnic diversity of the local population, the geographic distance to the origin country, and the ethno-linguistic fractionalization of the origin country. There exists also a significant positive relationship between immigrants' genetic diversity in and contemporaneous measures of U.
Some research suggests that immigration can offset some of the adverse effects of automation on native labor outcomes. A paper by University of Southern Denmark and University of Copenhagen economists found that the immigration restrictions enacted in the United States impaired the economy. Overall immigration has not had much effect on native wage inequality   but low-skill immigration has been linked to greater income inequality in the native population.
A literature review of the economic impacts of immigration found that the net fiscal impact of migrants varies across studies but that the most credible analyses typically find small and positive fiscal effects on average. A study found that inflows of asylum seekers into Western Europe from to had a net positive fiscal impact. Refugees integrate more slowly into host countries' labor markets than labor migrants, in part due to the loss and depreciation of human capital and credentials during the asylum procedure.
For instance, a study of Germans in West-Germany who had been displaced from Eastern Europe during and after World War II showed that the forced German migrants did far worse economically than their native West-German counterparts decades later. Refugees that enter as older teenagers have lower attainment with much of the difference attributable to language barriers and because many in this group are not accompanied by a parent to the U. A study found that the 0. Research on the economic effects of undocumented immigrants is scant but existing studies suggests that the effects are positive for the native population,   and public coffers.
Legalization, instead, decreases the unemployment rate of low-skilled natives and increases income per native. A study in the Journal of Public Economics found that more intense immigration enforcement increased the likelihood that US-born children with undocumented immigrant parents would live in poverty.
A study found no evidence that apprehensions of undocumented immigrants in districts in the United States improved the labor market outcomes for American natives. Research suggests that migration is beneficial both to the receiving and sending countries. According to economists Michael Clemens and Lant Pritchett , "permitting people to move from low-productivity places to high-productivity places appears to be by far the most efficient generalized policy tool, at the margin, for poverty reduction". A study of Mexican immigrant households in the United States found that by virtue of moving to the United States, the households increase their incomes more than fivefold immediately.
A study of European migrant workers in the UK shows that upon accession to the EU, the migrant workers see a substantial positive impact on their earnings. The data indicate that acquiring EU status raises earnings for the workers by giving them the right to freely change jobs.
A study in the Quarterly Journal of Economics found that immigrants from middle- and low-income countries to the United States increased their wages by a factor of two to three upon migration. A survey of the existing economic literature found that "high-skilled migrants boost innovation and productivity outcomes. Immigrants have been linked to greater invention and innovation in the US. A study finds "some evidence that larger immigrant population shares or inflows yield positive impacts on institutional quality. At a minimum, our results indicate that no negative impact on economic freedom is associated with more immigration.
Some research has found that as immigration and ethnic heterogeneity increase, government funding of welfare and public support for welfare decrease. Other possible explanations include theories regarding in-group and out-group effects and reciprocal altruism. Research however also challenges the notion that ethnic heterogeneity reduces public goods provision. Research finds that Americans' attitudes towards immigration influence their attitudes towards welfare spending. A study found that immigration in the period — in the United States increased the high school completion of natives: "An increase of one percentage point in the share of immigrants in the population aged 11—64 increases the probability that natives aged 11—17 eventually complete 12 years of schooling by 0.
Studies have found that non-native speakers of English in the UK have no causal impact on the performance of other pupils,  immigrant children have no significant impact on the test scores of Dutch children,  no effect on grade repetition among native students exposed to migrant students in Austrian schools,  that the presence of Latin American children in schools had no significant negative effects on peers, but that students with limited English skills had slight negative effects on peers,  and that the influx of Haitians to Florida public schools after the Haiti earthquake had no effects on the educational outcomes of incumbent students.
A study found that the "presence of immigrant students who have been in the country for some time is found to have no effect on natives. These outcomes are driven by classes with a high average linguistic distance between immigrants and natives, with no apparent additional role played by ethnic diversity.
A review of existing research in the Annual Review of Sociology on immigrant assimilation in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Belgium, the Netherlands and Spain concluded "we find an overall pattern of intergenerational assimilation in terms of socioeconomic attainment, social relations, and cultural beliefs. A study in the American Sociological Review found that within racial groups, most immigrants to the United States had fully assimilated within a span of 20 years. This means that successful cases of assimilation will be underestimated.
Research shows that ethnic attrition is sizable in Hispanic and Asian immigrant groups in the United States. It finds that "first generation migrants seem to be less likely to success the more culturally distant they are, but this effect vanishes as time spent in the US increases. A study found that Chinese nationals in the United States who received permanent residency permits from the US government amid the Tianamen Square protests and subsequent Chinese government clampdown experienced significant employment and earnings gains relative to similar immigrant groups who did not have the same residency rights.
During the Age of Mass Migration, infant arrivals to the United States had greater economic success over their lifetime than teenage arrivals. A report by the National Institute of Demographic Studies finds that an overwhelming majority of second-generation immigrants of all origins in France feel French, despite the persistent discrimination in education, housing and employment that many of the minorities face. Research shows that country of origin matters for speed and depth of immigrant assimilation but that there is considerable assimilation overall.
This holds also for children born to immigrants from very gender traditional cultures and for children born to less well integrated immigrant families. A study of Switzerland found that naturalization strongly improves long-term social integration of immigrants: "The integration returns to naturalization are larger for more marginalized immigrant groups and when naturalization occurs earlier, rather than later in the residency period. This effect is concentrated among more marginalized immigrants. First-generation immigrants tend to hold less accepting views of homosexual lifestyles but opposition weakens with longer stays.
A study of Bangladeshi migrants in East London found they shifted towards the thinking styles of the wider non-migrant population in just a single generation. A study on Germany found that foreign-born parents are more likely to integrate if their children are entitled to German citizenship at birth. Immigrants also invest more in host country-specific skills like language and vocational training.
Faster access to citizenship seems a powerful policy instrument to boost economic integration in countries with traditionally restrictive citizenship policies. Studies on programs that randomly allocate refugee immigrants across municipalities find that the assignment of neighborhood impacts immigrant crime propensity, education and earnings. Research suggests that bilingual schooling reduces barriers between speakers from two different communities. Research suggests that a vicious cycle of bigotry and isolation could reduce assimilation and increase bigotry towards immigrants in the long-term.
For instance, University of California, San Diego political scientist Claire Adida, Stanford University political scientist David Laitin and Sorbonne University economist Marie-Anne Valfort argue "fear-based policies that target groups of people according to their religion or region of origin are counter-productive. Our own research, which explains the failed integration of Muslim immigrants in France, suggests that such policies can feed into a vicious cycle that damages national security. Indeed, the failure of French security in was likely due to police tactics that intimidated rather than welcomed the children of immigrants—an approach that makes it hard to obtain crucial information from community members about potential threats.
A study which examined Catalan nationalism examined the Catalan Government's policy towards the integration of immigrants during the start of the s. At this time the Spanish region of Catalonia was experiencing a large influx in the number of immigrants from Northern Africa , Latin America and Asia. The Spanish government paid little attention to this influx of immigrants.
However, Catalan politicians began discussing how the increase in immigrants would effect Catalan identity. Members of the Catalan parliament petitioned for a plan to integrate these immigrants into Catalan society. Crucially , the plan did not include policies regarding naturalisation , which were key immigration policies of the Spanish government.
The plan of the Catalan parliament aimed to create a shared Catalan identity which included both the native Catalan population and immigrant communities. This meant that immigrants were encouraged to relate as part of the Catalan community but also encouraged to retain their own culture and traditions. In this way assimilation of immigrant cultures in Catalonia was avoided.
A study in the British Journal of Political Science found that immigrants in Norway became more politically engaged the earlier that they were given voting rights. A study in the European Economic Review found that language training improved the economic assimilation of immigrants in France. There is some research that suggests that immigration adversely affects social capital in the short term.
The impact of autocratic culture on trust can last for at least three generations while the impact on voting disappears after one generation. These impacts on trust and voting are also significant across Europe. However, these negative outcomes are compensated in the long term by the beneficial influence of intergroup contact, which alleviates initial negative influences.
Research suggests that immigration has positive effects on native workers' health. A systemic review and meta-analysis in The Lancet found that migrants generally have better health than the general population. A study of the United Kingdom found that immigration generally reduced house prices, because natives at the top of the wage distribution respond to immigration by moving to other areas, reducing demand for housing. Immigration and crime refers to perceived or actual relationships between crime and immigration.
The over-representation of immigrants in the criminal justice systems of several countries may be due to socioeconomic factors, imprisonment for migration offenses, and racial and ethnic discrimination by police and the judicial system. Research suggests that police practices, such as racial profiling , over-policing in areas populated by minorities and in-group bias may result in disproportionately high numbers of racial minorities among crime suspects in Sweden, Italy, and England and Wales.
Several meta-analyses find extensive evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring in the North-American and European labor markets. A meta-analysis found extensive evidence of racial and ethnic discrimination in the housing market of several European countries. A meta-analysis of racial discrimination in product markets found extensive evidence of minority applicants being quoted higher prices for products.
Research suggests that police practices, such as racial profiling , over-policing in areas populated by minorities and in-group bias may result in disproportionately high numbers of racial minorities among crime suspects. A study using correspondence tests "found that when considering requests from prospective students seeking mentoring in the future, faculty were significantly more responsive to White males than to all other categories of students, collectively, particularly in higher-paying disciplines and private institutions.
According to an analysis of the National Study of College Experience, elite colleges may favor minority applicants due to affirmative action policies. A National Bureau of Economic Research paper found that math teachers discriminate against the children of immigrants.
When the teachers were informed about negative stereotypes towards the children of immigrants, they gave higher grades to the children of immigrants. A meta-analysis found extensive evidence of racial discrimination in the American housing market. Moreover, agents' marketing efforts increase with asking price for white, but not for black, customers; blacks are more likely than whites to see houses in suburban, integrated areas steering ; and the houses agents show are more likely to deviate from the initial request when the customer is black than when the customer is white.
These three findings are consistent with the possibility that agents act upon the belief that some types of transactions are relatively unlikely for black customers statistical discrimination. A report by the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development where the department sent African-Americans and whites to look at apartments found that African-Americans were shown fewer apartments to rent and houses for sale. Several meta-analyses find extensive evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination in hiring in the American labor market.
Remittances increase living standards in the country of origin. Remittances are a large share of the GDP of many developing countries.
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Research finds that emigration and low migration barriers has net positive effects on human capital formation in the sending countries. One study finds that sending countries benefit indirectly in the long-run on the emigration of skilled workers because those skilled workers are able to innovate more in developed countries, which the sending countries are able to benefit on as a positive externality.
Greater emigration of skilled workers consequently leads to greater economic growth and welfare improvements in the long-run. According to economist Michael Clemens, it has not been shown that restrictions on high-skill emigration reduce shortages in the countries of origin. Research also suggests that emigration, remittances and return migration can have a positive impact on political institutions and democratization in the country of origin. Research suggests that emigration causes an increase in the wages of those who remain in the country of origin. A survey of the existing literature on emigration finds that a 10 percent emigrant supply shock would increase wages in the sending country by 2—5.
Some research shows that the remittance effect is not strong enough to make the remaining natives in countries with high emigration flows better off. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Movement of people into another country or region to which they are not native. Not to be confused with Emigration or Migration.
For other uses, see Immigrant disambiguation. Further information: Immigration by country. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. October Further information: History of human migration. Further information: Economic migrant. Entry top and Exit above passport stamps issued to a citizen of Germany by Indian immigration authorities at New Delhi airport. Main article: Immigration and crime.
This section is transcluded from Immigration and crime. Childhood and migration Criticism of multiculturalism Feminization of migration White genocide conspiracy theory Human overpopulation Human migration Immigration and crime Immigration law Immigration reform Multiculturalism Opposition to immigration People smuggling Political demography Repatriation Replacement migration Right of foreigners to vote First world privilege List of countries by net migration rate List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density Yom HaAliyah , Israeli national holiday honoring immigration.
Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 May Merriam-Webster, In. Retrieved 27 March London, England: Refugee Council. Retrieved 7 September Journal of the European Economic Association. The economics of immigration: theory and policy. New York; Heidelberg [u. Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 19 September Journal of Economic Perspectives. Journal of Development Economics. Review of Economics and Statistics. Emigration and wages in source countries: a survey of the empirical literature. International Handbook on Migration and Economic Development.
Edward Elgar Publishing. IZA Discussion Papers Retrieved 13 February National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Americans have long believed that immigrants are more likely than natives to commit crimes and that rising immigration leads to rising crime This belief is remarkably resilient to the contrary evidence that immigrants are in fact much less likely than natives to commit crimes.
Immigration, Crime and Justice. Emerald Group Publishing. American Sociological Review. Culture" PDF. IZA Journal of Migration. Retrieved 13 October Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. A Meta Analysis of Studies Conducted since ". Retrieved 24 April Marit; Starr, Sonja B. Journal of Political Economy.