Review Text If you are looking to bin the old Kennedys and restock Latin grammars, then this is certainly worth considering, being competitively priced and easy to use. Review quote There is a pleasing historical sense to the book, with short articles on Latin pronunciation in England and the development of Kennedy's primer, along with the gender rhymes, offered as a curiosity The grammar has a fresher, more modern appearance and style. Rating details. Our customer reviews I regard this book to be an essential text for anyone making a serious study of Latin.
It is an essential companion to any Latin textbook I'm using Wheelock's Latin. I have found this text to be an excellent quick-reference source when writing Latin compositions. It is an essential text, particularly to those who were not taught English grammar in school. Book ratings by Goodreads.
These also have different masculine, feminine, and neuter forms to agree with the gender of the noun they refer to. Latin word order is commonly subject—object—verb. However, other word orders are common.
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Different word orders can also be used to express subtle nuances, even in prose. See Latin word order.
In Latin an adjective can come either before or after a noun , e. The adjective may also be separated from its noun by other words, especially in poetry. A language with this characteristic is known as a pro-drop language. Latin also exhibits verb framing in which the path of motion is encoded into the verb rather than shown by a separate word or phrase. Nouns are divided into three genders , known as masculine , feminine , and neuter. The difference is shown in the pronouns and adjectives that refer to them, for example:.
Gildersleeve's Latin grammar
To a certain extent, the genders follow the meanings of the words for example, winds are masculine, tree-names feminine :. Masculine and feminine nouns, of whatever declension, always add -m to make the object singular e. Neuter nouns differ from masculine and feminine in two ways: 1 the plural ends in -a , e. Nouns in Latin have a series of different forms, called cases of the noun, which have different functions or meanings.
A few nouns have a separate form used for addressing a person vocative case , but in most nouns the vocative is the same as the nominative. But most nouns do not have this case. All the cases except nominative and vocative are called the "oblique" cases. The order in which the cases are given in grammar books differs in different countries. In Britain and countries influenced by Britain the order nominative, vocative, accusative is used as in the table below.
In the popularly used Wheelock's Latin , 7th edition and Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar , however, the vocative is placed at the end. The following table shows the endings of a typical noun of the 3rd declension. Sometimes the same endings, e. In practice, however, such ambiguities are rare. The endings of nouns vary according to their declension. Nouns of the 1st and 2nd declensions generally follow the following patterns, showing the declension of puella "girl", dominus "lord, master", and bellum "war": .
The locative case ends in -ae , pl. Aegyptus "Egypt" , which are feminine. A few 2nd declension nouns, such as vir "man" and puer "boy", lack endings in the nominative and vocative singular.
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Neuter nouns such as bellum "war" have -a in the nominative plural. In neuter nouns, the vocative and accusative are always the same as the nominative; the genitive, dative, and ablative are the same as the masculine. Third declension nouns have various patterns of declension. There are some variations, however. The genitive plural in some nouns is -um , in others -ium.
For details, see Latin declension. It is not usually possible to guess the genitive of a noun from the nominative. For this reason the genitive is always given in dictionaries, and can be used to discover the remaining cases. There are only four 4th declension neuter nouns. Some words, such as deus "god", have no separate vocative, however. The nominative case is used for the subject of an active or a passive verb, or the complement of a copula verb such as est "is": .
The vocative case is used when addressing someone:. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence: . The accusative is also used after various prepositions especially those that imply motion towards :. If the head noun is derived from a verb, the genitive can be subjective or objective: .
A frequent type of genitive is the partitive genitive, expressing the quantity of something: . The dative case means "to" or "for". The ablative case can mean "with", especially when the noun it refers to is a thing rather than a person: . Often a phrase consisting of a noun plus participle in the ablative can express time or circumstance. This is known as an "ablative absolute": . It is also frequently used with prepositions, especially those meaning "from", "with", "in", or "by":. Another use is in expressions of time and place except those that give the length of time or distance :.
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The ablative can also mean "from", especially with place names: . The locative is a rare case used only with names of cities, small islands, and one or two other words such as domus "home". It means "at" or "in": . Adjectives, like nouns, have different endings for the different cases singular and plural. They also differ as to gender, having different forms for masculine, feminine, and neuter. But masculine and neuter are identical in the genitive, dative, and ablative cases. Many adjectives belong to the 1st and 2nd declensions, declining in the same way as the nouns puella, dominus, bellum.
The various endings of each declension or conjugation are set out in the following tables. The endings are given in bold. If a noun does not have an ending in bold, this may mean that the ending can vary, or that the ending is the same as the nominative case. An adjective is a word that describes a noun.
In Latin, an adjective agrees with the noun it describes in gender, number and case. An adverb is a word that describes a verb.